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, , , .

, , . . . , "" [266].

, (), , α = e2/2hcε0, ε0 .

1/137, . , .

1929 1941 . 0,2% 7,283 (10-3) 7,2976 (10-3)[267]. , .

, , , , . 1941 1973 . . 17. , , , . , 1951 1963 . , 1951 . ( ), 12 . , 1973 ., , 1963 ., 1963 . 4.

. 17. 1941 1983 .

4

,

1951 1973 .

α (? 10-3)
1951 7,296 953 0,000 028
1963 7,297 200 0,000 033
1973 7,297 350 0,000 0060

, [268]. , . , . , , [269]. , , , , . , [270].

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: .. , : / . . . .: ,2004. 432 .. 2004

:

  1. .
  2. - ^-
  3. () .
  4. . ( ) (. 7.57.12)
  5. pH
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